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foruts
det skrives forutse om fremtiden eks. jeg kunne ikke forutse hvem som ville vinne fotballkampen

i lve it.
yfhhb hhhg

L'Analisi Conversazionale
L'Analisi Conversazionale mira a ricercare una struttura nell'interazione verbale. Dopo la trascrizione della conversazione, si passa all'indagine dell'organizzazione interna individuata. L'attenzione dello studioso si concentra anche sulla presenza di eventuali parole vuote e ripetizioni.

Il Segno
Il Segno, in generale, può essere definito come "qualcosa che sta per qualcos'altro e serve per definire questo qualcos'altro". Esso, infatti, è l'unione di un significato (immagine mentale) ed un significante (suono).

La Semantica Lessicale
La Semantica Lessicale è un sottocampo della semantica e si occupa del significato di espressioni linguistiche a livello di parole. Nella semantica lessicale, le unità di significato sono dette unità lessicali e possono denotare cose e concetti.

La Frase
La Frase, in generale, può essere definita come un'espressione linguistica dotata di significato. Si possono individuare due tipi di frase: semplice e complessa. La prima è caratterizzata da un unico verbo, mentre la seconda è formata da più proposizioni collegate tra loro sullo stesso livello o su livelli diversi.

Fonologia segmentale
Concepisce il segmento come un'unità costituita da un fascio di tratti, basati su criteri articolari e non ordinati in alcuna gerarchia.

Posposizione
È un tipo di apposizione (aggiunta) che si realizza in molte lingue SOV (soggetto- oggetto -verbo), seguendo il sintagma nominale, retto da essa.

Consonanti palato-alveolari
sono quelle postalveolari palatizzate, solitamente affricate e fricative, articolate con la lama della lingua dietro la cresta alveolare, e il corpo della lingua sollevato verso il palato.

Soggetto
Il soggetto di una frase ed qualsiasi parte del discorso cui è riferito il predicato: se il predicato è singolare, anche il soggetto sarà tale. Esso si accorda con il verbo ed è presente in quasi tutte le frasi.

Produttività (proprietà della lingua )
Produttività (o apertura, creatività) allude alla facoltà della lingua di parlare di cose nuove, talvolta anche inesistenti, di nuove esperienze e di messaggi mai prodotti prima.

Verbi Sintagmatici
Verbi polirematici (cioè composti da più elementi) , che presentano la struttura verbo + particella, come "andare giù" , "tirare su" , "venire fuori" , "mettere sotto" , ecc.

Dittongo ascendente
L'identificazione di esso è relativamente semplice. La semiconsonante precede la vocale che rappresenta l'apice sillabico.

Calco Linguistico
Forma particolare di prestito, spesso utile per colmare lacune lessicali (soprattutto nel campo della scienza e della tecnologia) o che avviene in maniera spontanea; si tratta di un procedimento di formazione delle parole che consiste nel coniare nuovi termini riprendendo le strutture della lingua di provenienza.

Morfi cumulativi
Sono tutti quei morfi che realizzano un morfema

Famiglia sino-tibetana
le lingue sino-tibetana sono una vasta famiglia linguistica parlata in Asia. Si dividono in lingue sillitiche (cinese mandarino e cantonese) e in tibeto-birmane

Suffisso
Elemento formativo di una parola posto alla fine di una radice. Esso può anche aggiungersi ad una stessa già compiuta, formando, per derivazione, una nuova parola. Ha funzioni morfologiche e semantiche.

verbi trasformativi
Sono verbi non durativi che modificano lo stato del soggetto. Esprimono un'azione istantanea. Quelli reversibili determinano un mutamento di stato del soggetto dal quale si può tornare indietro, gli irreversibili il contrario.

COMUNICAZIONE
scambio di informazioni mediante uno o più linguaggi ( verbale, gestuale, musicale) tra un emittente e un destinatario. COLLEDANCHISE CHIARA

ITALIANO STANDARD
Coincide con l'Italiano descritto e prescritto dai manuali di grammatica e conserva una forte impronta toscano-fiorentina; si realizza prevalentemente nello scritto. COLLEDANCHISE CHIARA

PARATASSI
Costruzione del periodo basata sulla coordinazione di frasi indipendenti per mezzo di congiunzioni. Le preposizioni vengono coordinate e questo consente di fare un discorso più scorrevole. La costruzione paratattica è spesso usata nel testo descrittivo poiché questa modalità conferisce chiarezza, evidenza e incisività alla descrizione. COLLEDANCHISE CHIARA

ESECUZIONE LINGUISTICA
produzione effettiva di frasi della lingua . Si distingue nettamente dalla competenza linguistica che invece sta a significare la capacità di produzione di frasi ben formate. COLLEDANCHISE CHIARA

CONSONANTI OCCLUSIVE
Le consonanti occlusive vengono generate mediante il blocco completo del flusso d'aria a livello della bocca, della faringe o della glottide e il rilascio rapido di questo blocco. Vengono quindi classicate così per il proprio modo di articolazione. Precisamente le consonanti occlusive sono : p, b, t, d, k, g COLLEDANCHISE CHIARA

Onnipotenza Semantica
È una proprietà generale del linguaggio verbale umano, che consiste nel fatto che con la lingua è possibile dare un'espressione a qualsiasi contenuto. L'onnipotenza semantica si riferisce dunque, in parole semplici, al fatto che con la lingua si può parlare di tutto; o meglio la lingua ha proprietà polifunzionale. Bisogna infine osservare che tale proprietà, è valida nel momento in cui un qualsiasi messaggio formulato in codice diverso, sia poi traducibile in lingua, il contrario non è valido. Luca Ferri.

Frase Implicita
La frase è un insieme di parole disposte intorno a un verbo di senso compiuto e autonomo. Si possono distinguere due tipi di frase: La frase semplice, composta da un unico verbo; e la frase complessa formata da più proposizioni collegate tra loro sullo stesso livello o su livelli differenti. I collegamenti tra le varie proposizioni possono essere di due tipi: la coordinazione e la subordinazione. La subordinazione mette le frasi su livelli diversi, per cui c’è la frase che regge ,da cui dipendono le varie frasi di diverso grado (chiamate subordinate )collegate con una congiunzione o con una preposizione. La subordinazione può presentare due forme: – la forma esplicita, quando usa un verbo di modo finito (indicativo, congiuntivo, condizionale). – la forma implicita, quando usa un verbo di modo indefinito (infinito, gerundio, participio). La frase implicita, è quindi una frase subordinata che usa un verbo di modo indefinito. Luca Ferri

Babbling
Il Babbling è una fase dello sviluppo del linguaggio in cui i bambini iniziano una fase di sperimentazione fonetica che consiste nel produrre sequenze di suoni consonantici e vocali.

Morfema lessicale
La morfologia scompone le parole in unità significative, chiamate morfemi che possono essere distinti in lessicale e grammaticale. Il morfema lessicale è un morfema che dà tutto o parte del significato principale della parola o espressione.

Famiglia Linguistica
Lo studio semantico delle lingue e il loro confronto tipologico e strutturale, hanno portati all'identificazione di somiglianze tra alcune lingue, tali da poter ipotizzare la loro discendenza da una lingua ancestrale comune. A questo legame di parentela è stato dato il nome di famiglia linguistica.

Verbi durativi
Le caratteristiche azionali di un verbo, possono essere descritte utilizzando i tratti semantici di durativitá; la durativitá descrive verbi che sono percepiti come prolungati nel tempo da altri che sono invece percepiti come istantanei.

Elisione
Caduta della vocale finale atona di una parola davanti alla vocale iniziale della parola seguente, è segnata dall'apostrofo.

Italiano regionale
Italiano che varia su base geografica laddove "Regionale" non è relativo alle regioni amministrative, ma a regioni linguistiche (italiano settentrionale, centrale, romano, meridionale, meridionale estremo, sardo).

Ipotassi
(o subordinazione) è il procedimento sintattico attraverso il quale le proporzioni all'interno di un periodo sono ordinate ed espresse secondo un rapporto di dipendenza.

Asse sintagmatico
contrapposto all' asse sintagmatico, è l'asse delle combinazioni in praesentia. Assicura che le combinazioni di unità siano formate in base alle restrizioni tipiche di ogni lingua.

Informazione
Notizia, dato o elemento che consente di avere conoscenza più o meno esatta di fatti, situazioni. In senso più generale, è la trasmissione dei dati e l' insieme delle strutture che lo consentono.

Verbi risultativi
I verbi risultativi sono quei verbi che, se accompagnati da un complemento oggetto, esprimono azioni che possono considerarsi concluse solo al raggiungimento di un certo risultato.

Accento melodico
Dicesi "accento melodico", o "accento musicale", un accento di parola in grado di dare rilievo alla sillaba prominente per mezzo di una particolare configurazione melodica, cioè una variazione dell'altezza di voce, che si manifesta con un movimento tonale in corrispondenza di una o più sillabe.

Sintagma nominale
Il sintagma nominale è un tipo di sintagma, una o più parole di una frase riferite ad un'unita concettuale, il cui elemento principale, ossia quello che determina l'accordo e la funzione sintattica dell'intera combinazione, è un nome.

Massima della modalità
La massima della modalità è una delle quattro massime conversazionali definite dal filosofo inglese Herbert Paul Grice, i principi regolativi che governano, secondo logica e pertinenza, la conversazione, nel rispetto di cooperazione fra individui che conversano. Anche detta "massima per il modo", essa consiste nella facoltà di evitare l'ambiguità in una conversazione: il parlante deve adottare parole che gli permettano di non risultare ambiguo o oscuro.

Numero
Per "numero" si intende una categoria grammaticale, che serve ad esprimere formalmente la quantità dei referenti. Per la lingua italiana esistono singolare, plurale e qualche traccia di duale (per esempio, il sostantivo "ambo")

Agiotoponimo
Il significato del termine "agiotoponimo" è ben spiegato dalla sua etimologia dalla lingua greca: da agio-, che sta per "sacro", -topo-, che sta per "luogo" e -onimo, che sta per nome. Si indica, quindi, un luogo, il cui nome è dedicato ad un santo.

Grammaticalità e Agrammaticalità
Per grammaticalità si intende quella proprietà per la quale una frase, di una determinata lingua, è costruita nel rispetto delle regole grammaticali della lingua stessa. Invece quando queste non vengono rispettatte siamo di fronte all'agrammaticalità.

Allofoni
Gli allofoni sono le diverse realizzazioni foniche di uno stesso fonema che però non ne alterano il significato.

Allofoni
Gli allofoni sono le diverse realizzazioni foniche di uno stesso fonema che però non ne alterano il significato.

Campo semantico
Per campo semantico si intende un insieme di parole, di una stessa lingua, che si riferiscono alla stessa area di significati e quindi connesse in qualche modo tra di loro.

Lingue specialistiche
Per lingue specialistiche si intendono quelle lingue che hanno un lessico specifico, basato su un insieme di termini tecnici relativi alla materia, secondo norme convenzionali.

Lessicografia
Con il termime lessicografia si intende quella tecnica, che mediante la classificazione e la raccolta dei vocaboli, permette la compilazione di lessici e dizionari.

Alfabeto IPA
L'Alfabeto fonetico internazionale, indicato con la sigla IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet), è un sistema convenzionale di scrittura alfabetico, basato principalmente sull'alfabeto latino, che consente la trascrizione articolatoria dei suoni di tutte le lingue.

Famiglia afro-asiatica
È una famiglia linguistica formata da numerose lingue parlate o estinte, nell'area che comprende l'Africa settentrionale, il Medio Oriente e parte dell'Africa orientale. Ad esempio, fanno parte di questa famiglia l'egiziano antico, l'arabo e l'ebraico.

Etimologia
L'etimologia è la scienza che studia la storia delle parole, indagandone l'origine e l'evoluzione fonetica, morfologica, semantica.

Bi planarità (proprietà delle lingue)
È una proprietà della lingua. Sostiene che un segno è composto da due piani: il significante ( ciò che cade sotto i nostri sensi) e il significato ( il contenuto)

Consonanti Vibranti
Definite anche trillo, esse sono consonanti la cui articolazione consiste nel susseguirsi di più chiusure e aperture del canale vocale che producono una vibrazione:; viene prodotta mediante una debole occlusione intermittente della bocca, la quale si interrompe e ripristina velocemente più volte. Le consonanti vibranti sono sempre sonore e inoltre sono continue.

composti neoclassici
I composti neoclassici sono parole composte caratterizzate dall'unione di due elementi. Le forme che entrano a far parte della composizione sono parole autonome ma in greco e latino. Il suffisso viene chiamato prefissoide o suffissoide.

lingua creola
Col nome di lingua creola i linguisti designano quella parlata che ha avuto origine dalla combinazione di più lingue indoeuropee con parlate indigene, durante il periodo di colonizzazione delle Americhe.

morfema
Con il termine morfema si fa riferimento a un'unità linguistica minima dotata di significato.

lemma
Il lemma è un'unità grafica che costituisce l'intestazione di un articolo o di una voce di un dizionario o in un'enciclopedia.

Sillaba chiusa
sillaba con coda, che finisce con una consonante o una semivocale.

Sillaba chiusa
sillaba con coda, che finisce con una consonante o una semivocale.

Atto linguistico
In linguistica, con l'espressione "atto linguistico" si intende un atto eseguito attraverso l'uso delle parole. Ogni volta che si proferisce un enunciato, dunque, si compie un atto linguistico.

Sillaba aperta
Una sillaba è detta aperta o libera quando termina per vocale.

Beneficiario
Con il termine beneficiario si fa riferimento al ruolo semantico dell'entità che trae beneficio dall'azione, a vantaggio della quale va a ricadere quanto accade nell'avvenimento. Ad esempio, nella frase "Luca ha regalato una rosa a Marta", "Marta" è il beneficiario.

Beneficiario
Con il termine beneficiario si fa riferimento al ruolo semantico dell'entità che trae beneficio dall'azione, a vantaggio della quale va a ricadere quanto accade nell'avvenimento. Ad esempio, nella frase "Luca ha regalato una rosa a Marta", "Marta" è il beneficiario.

Pronome
In linguistica, il pronome è la parte variabile del discorso che sostituisce il nome, permettendo di indicare, senza nominarli, esseri o cose dal punto di vista della qualità, quantità o posizione.

Atto linguistico
In linguistica, con l'espressione "atto linguistico" si intende un atto eseguito attraverso l'uso delle parole. Ogni volta che si proferisce un enunciato, dunque, si compie un atto linguistico.

Atto linguistico
In linguistica, con l'espressione "atto linguistico" si intende un atto eseguito attraverso l'uso delle parole. Ogni volta che si proferisce un enunciato, dunque, si compie un atto linguistico.

Minoranza Linguistica
Comunità più o meno consistente di una determinata area geografica che parla una lingua differente da quella ufficiale.

Pronomi allocutivi
I pronomi allocutivi sono forme di pronomi personali, atoni e tonici, usate per rivolgersi a un destinatario, per interloquire con lui e per richiamare la sua attenzione. Annarita Campiti

Significato lessicale
È il concetto che viene associato alla parola lessicale o parola contenuto. È quella parte della parola che ha in se il significato stesso di quella parola Annarita Campiti

Significato lessicale

Consonante
In fonetica, le consonanti sono segmenti fonici, sordi o sonori, realizzati grazie alla fuoriuscita di aria dalla cavità orale, ed eventualmente da quella nasale, dopo il superamento di un ostacolo di entità variabile (una stretta o una chiusura) presente nell’apparato fonatorio a partire dalla laringe. Annarita Campiti

Socioletto
Varietà linguistica tipica di una classe sociale,un gruppo professionale, etnico-geografico ecc. Annarita Campiti

Frase Completiva
Sono chiamate così quelle frasi dipendenti "oggettive" e quelle "soggettive" che completano il predicato della frase reggente: stanno cioè al posto del soggetto,dell'oggetto diretto o dell'oggetto indiretto. Annarita Campiti

Isola linguistica
Per isola linguistica si intende una comunità (o un insieme ridotto di comunità geograficamente contigue) in cui sia tradizionalmente in uso una varietà linguistica nettamente diversa da quella praticata nel territorio circostante.

Iato
Con il termine iato (dal latino hiatus, "apertura") si indica un fenomeno linguistico che consiste nel dividere tra due sillabe due vocali che altrimenti farebbero parte della stessa sillaba, vocali che vengono quindi accostate e pronunciate con due emissioni di voce.

Standard Linguistico
In linguistica, con l'espressione lingua standard si fa riferimento a una varietà di lingua soggetta a codificazione normativa, e che vale come modello di riferimento per l'uso corretto della lingua e per l'insegnamento scolastico.

Substandard
Ciò che non è conforme alla lingua standard, che contravviene alla norma assunta come modello in una comunità linguistica. Esempi sono: le province regionali, i linguaggi giovanili, i gerghi.

Differenza tra scritto e parlato
Il parlato richiede la "compresenza" degli interlocutori, non può arrivare oltre una certa distanza; la scrittura può allontanarsi infinitamente e definitivamente dal suo produttore.

Parole (Saussure)
La "parole" è il momento individuale, mutevole e creativo del linguaggio, il modo con cui il soggetto parlante utillizza il codice della lingua in relazione al proprio pensiero personale.

Sonorizzazione
È un termine usato in fonetica in fonologia per caratterizzare i suoni linguistici che vengono descritti come sordi o sonori. Un suono sonoro è quello in cui le corde vocali vibrano e un suono sordo è quello in cui ciò non avviene. La sonorizzazione può riferirsi al processo articolatorio in cui vibrano le corde vocali. Il suo uso primario in fonetica ê per descrivere i foni; l`uso del termine in fonologia si riferisce alla descrizione dei fonemi.

Punteggiatura
È l`insieme dei ``segni di punteggiatura ``o interpunzione che vengono usati nella forma scritta del linguaggio. conferisce tonalità ed espressione al testo. È indispensabile per la corretta lettura e comprensione dei testi . Nella lingua italiana i segni di punteggiatura sono il punto, la virgola, punto e virgola, i due punti, il punto esclamativo, i punto interrogativo, i puntini di sospensione, le virgolette, la barra e le parentesi e le lineette.

Morfologia
Si riferisce allo studio della forma. È la parte della grammatica che ha per oggetto lo studio della struttura grammaticale delle parole e stabilisce la classificazione e l`appartenenza a determinate categorie come la flessione o la derivazione. Indaga i meccanismi secondo i quali le unità portatrici dei significati semplici si organizzano in significati più complessi, ovvero le parole.

Sillaba aperta
Sillaba che termina in vocale.

Minoranza linguistica
Comunità più o meno consistente di una determinata area geografica che parla una lingua differente da quella ufficiale.

Pronome
Parte variabile del discorso che sostituisce il nome, permettendo di indicare, senza nominarli, esseri o cose dal punto di vista della qualità, quantità o posizione. Può avere funzione anaforica quando sostituisce una parte del testo già espressa, oppure cataforica quando sostituisce una parte ancora da esprimere o ancora funzione deittica quando si riferisce ad un elemento del contesto in cui si svolge il discorso. Si distinguono pronomi personali, possessivi, riflessivi, dimostrativi, indefiniti,nrelativi, interrogativi, numerali ed esclamativi.

Frase circostanziale
La frase circostanziale è una frase subordinata che esprime la circostanza in cui avviene l'azione della reggente. Appartengono a questa categoria le subordinate finali, causali, temporali, concessive, ipotetiche.

Anafonesi
Fenomeno fonetico che ha interessato il volgare fiorentino nell'alto medioevo. Esso consiste nel passaggio della [e] e della [o] toniche rispettivamente a [i] e [u], se poste davanti a determinate consonanti. Esempi di anafonesi sono i termini toscani "lingua" e "fungo", cui corrispondevano in altri volgari italiani le espressioni "lengua" e "fongo".

Leetspeak
Il leetspeak è una forma di linguaggio scritto che utilizza simboli e numeri al posto delle lettere per la composizione di un testo.

Doppia articolazione
Una delle proprietà del linguaggio verbale umano: ogni enunciato può essere segmentato, a un primo livello, in unità minime di significato (i morfemi), che a loro volta possono essere scomposte, a un secondo livello, in unità più piccole (i fonemi), dotate di valore distintivo ma prive di significato.

confisso
In linguistica, nelle parole composte, è l'elemento morfologicamente autonomo, per lo più di origine greca o latina, che si trova in posizione iniziale o finale di parola oppure unito ad un altro confisso. Quando è anteposto, il confisso è detto prefissoide, quando è posposto suffissoide.

L'assimilazione è un fenomeno che si verifica quando un segmento fonologico modifica il segmento precedente o il segmento succes

Consonanti labiodentali: è una consonante classificata secondo il proprio luogo di articolazione.

La riflessività è propria del linguaggio e indica la possibilità di usare la lingua per parlare della lingua stessa.

Parola piana
L'accento italiano è essenzialmente intensivo, cioè la sillaba accentata è pronunciata più forte delle altre senza che ciò comporti una variazione della nota musicale. (Nelle parole piane l'accento va sulla penultima)

Sintagma preposizionale
È una costruzione con due elementi che si presuppongono a vicenda; in italiano in posizione iniziale la preposizione, e dopo il costituente retto un sintagma nominale.

Metodo comparativo
Il metodo comparativo è il procedimento di analisi e di ricostruzione delle lingue attraverso l'accostamento e il confronto di vari elementi, sia all'interno di un medesimo idioma sia tra idiomi differenti.

Analogia
L'analogia è il procedimento che nel corso della storia di una lingua, riduce via via le forme percepite come irregolarità e le riformula secondo il modello più comune di una data lingua.

QUESTIONE DELLA LINGUA
Con l'espressione "questione della lingua" si vuol indicare una disputa di carattere sociale in ambito letterario che ebbe la sua fase più acuta nel Cinquecento. Si cercava dunque, di risolvere il problema di quale lingua utilizzare nella penisola.

METAFORA
La "metafora" è una figura retorica consistente nella sostituzione di un termine con un altro connesso al primo da un rapporto di parziale sovrapposizione.

OMONIMIA
Per "omonimia" s'intende una condizione in cui due persone o cose hanno lo stesso nome. In linguistica viene associata al fenomeno per cui due parole hanno uguale suono e grafia ma etimo e significato diverso.

Langue
La langue, secondo la terminologia di Saussure, è un sistema di vocaboli ed insieme di regole fonetiche e sintattiche che formano il patrimonio degli esseri "parlanti", all'interno di una certa società.

Vocali nasali
Una vocale nasale è una vocale prodotta con il velo palatino abbassato, che permette il passaggio dell'aria nella cavità nasali, creando cosi un suono caratteristico.

Code mixing
Il Code mixing è il passaggio da un codice linguistico ad un altro, all'interno di una stessa frase. Di norma, non è intenzionale e non ha una particolare funzione comunicativa.

Lingua parlata
Con il termine lingua parlata, si identifica un insieme di caratteristiche strutturali e funzionali che si manifestano, principalmente, quando la lingua viene usata attraverso il canale fonico-uditivo.

Linguistica computazionale
La linguistica computazionale è quella disciplina basata sull' elaborazione elettronica dei fenomeni linguistici.

Simmetria
Il termine simmetria indica generalmente la presenza di alcune ripetizioni nella forma geometrica di un oggetto, in modo che a ogni punto dell’oggetto posto da una parte di esso corrisponda, a uguale distanza, un punto dall’altra parte.

Frasi coordinate
Nell’analisi del periodo, le proposizioni coordinate sono frasi unite da un rapporto di coordinazione. Si trovano dunque su uno stesso piano sintattico e hanno ciascuna una propria autonomia. La coordinazione può avvenire per semplice giustapposizione (ossia per asindeto) oppure mediante l’uso delle congiunzioni coordinative (ossia per polisindeto).

Consonanti fricative
Per consonante fricativa, in fonetica, si intende ogni consonante la cui articolazione richieda non una chiusura momentanea (come nelle esplosive) ma solo un restringimento del canale vocale, tale che la corrente d’aria passandovi produca un rumore come di fruscio (donde il nome).

Plurilinguismo
Situazione di una comunità o di un territorio in cui, per la posizione di confine o per la composizione etnica, sono in uso più lingue; anche, la capacità di un singolo individuo o di un gruppo etnico di esprimersi facilmente in più lingue, o anche dialetti, o di usare più livelli di linguaggio.

Sillaba chiusa
sillaba con coda, che finisce con una consonante o una semivocale.

Sperimentatore (ruoli semantici)
è il ruolo semantico dell'entità toccata da, o che prova, un certo stato o processo psicologico.

Atti locutori
consistono nel formare una frase in una data lingua, una proposizione con la sua struttura fonetica, grammaticale, lessicale.

Articoli (parti del discorso)
parti variabili del discorso che precedono il sostantivo e si accordano con esso per genere e numero.

Onomastica
1. branca della linguistica che studia i nomi propri, i loro processi di formazione e le loro caratteristiche all'interno di una o più lingue o dialetti. 2. insieme dei nomi propri di persona o di luogo all'interno di una determinata area linguistica, sociale, geografica o etnica.

Sistema di scrittura logografico
La scrittura logografica è un sistema di scrittura in cui a ogni simbolo (logogramma) corrisponde un concetto, concreto o astratto: per esempio, nei geroglifici egiziani il concetto di "vecchiaia" è rappresentato dal disegno di un uomo curvo che si sorregge con un bastone.

Pronomi allocutivi
Sono quei pronomi che utilizziamo,nelle diverse lingue,per riferirci al nostro o ai nostri interlocutori. Sono allocutivi, in italiano,i pronomi TU,usato per riferirsi a un singolo interlocutore, e VOI,usato per rivolgersi a due o più persone. Tuttavia ,per alcune categorie di interlocutori, in determinate circostanze, non usiamo il tu bensì il LEI oppure il VOI. Annarita Campiti

Frase complessiva o argomentale
Sono chiamate così quelle frasi dipendenti "oggettive" e quelle "soggettive" che completano il predicato della frase reggente: stanno cioè al posto del soggetto,dell'oggetto diretto o dell'oggetto indiretto. Annarita Campiti

Consonante
Una consonante è un suono linguistico (fono)  che ha come realizzazione prevalente un confonde (suono che ha una configurazione almeno parzialmente chiusa dal tratto vocale) . La parola «consonante» proviene dal latino consonans (sottinteso littera, «lettera»), che significa letteralmente "suona con" o "suona insieme". Il termine sta infatti a indicare che questo suono può essere pronunciato solo in appoggio e con l'aiuto di una vocale. Una consonante è infatti articolata, opponendo all'aria un ostacolo, in modo da produrre un rumore nella sua fuoriuscita. Annarita Campiti

Socioletto
Varietà linguistica tipica di una classe sociale,un gruppo professionale, etnico-geografico ecc. Annarita Campiti

funzione poetica
Secondo la teoria delle funzioni linguistiche elaborata da Jakobson, la funzione poetica si realizza quando il messaggio che il parlante invia all'ascoltatore è costruito in modo tale da costringere l'ascoltatore a ritornare sul messaggio stesso per apprezzarne il modo in cui è formulato. M. IGLIERI

Grammatica
insieme di regole (morfologiche, fonetiche, sintattiche) che caratterizzano un determinato codice linguistico storico - naturale. Fabio Agrella

Funzione metalinguisica
Secondo la teoria delle funzioni linguistiche elaborata da Jakobson, la funzione metalinguistica si realizza quando il codice viene usato per parlare del codice stesso. Ad esempio, le definizioni dei vocabolari realizzano pienamente tale funzione.

Lingua
In linguistica, con il termine lingua si fa riferimento a un sistema di convenzioni fonetiche e grafiche che è regolato da un insieme di norme morfosintattiche. Tale sistema è accettato e usato da una comunità etnica, politica o culturale come mezzo di comunicazione per l'espressione e lo scambio di pensieri e sentimenti.

Funzione fàtica
Secondo la teoria delle funzioni linguistiche elaborata da Jakobson, la funzione fàtica ha il compito di esercitare il controllo sul canale attraverso cui si stabilisce la comunicazione, utilizzando espressioni mirate alla verifica del suo funzionamento. Ad esempio, quando al telefono si dice 'Pronto?".

Zinale
Abito con pettorina. Solitamente indossato sopra gli abiti per evitare di sporcarli mentre si svolgono dei lavori domestici (sin. grembiule). Ad esempio: "Quando lavo i piatti, indosso lo zinale".

linguistica
Disciplina che studia il linguaggio umano e le sue forme storico naturali

variabilita linguistica
Per variabilità linguistica s intendono tutte le forme di variazioni della stessa come: dialett i, accenti, registri, stili...

variabilita linguistica

Diglossia
Per diglossia si intende ogni situazione di compresenza nel repertorio di una comunità di due varietà di lingua ( dello stesso sistema o di sistemi diversi ) differenziate per funzioni e per prestigio. Come una delle più ricorrenti specificazioni di tale descrizione, si definisce diglottica una situazione di coesistenza di una lingua standard e di dialetti, quale troviamo nell'area italiana. Baldini Manuel

Comunità linguistica
È una comunità che condivide la conoscenza di regole per produrre e interpretare il parlare.

repertorio linguistico
L'insieme delle risorse linguistiche a disposizione di una comunità linguistica o di un parlante. Il repertorio linguistico del parlante comprende una o più lingue o dialetti mentre quello individuale é un sottoinsieme di quello comunitario ed è un minimo comune multiplo degli individui che compongono la comunità. Marta Gragnano.

Bilinguismo
Con bilinguismo si intende genericamente la presenza di più di una lingua presso un singolo o una comunità. Il bilinguismo in senso lato costituisce la condizione più diffusa a livello sia individuale sia di società: la vera eccezione sarebbe piuttosto il monolinguismo. Più in particolare, bilinguismo si riferisce sia al concetto più generale e ampio della competenza e dell’uso di due lingue, sia a quello più specifico di repertorio linguistico (meglio definito come bilinguismo sociale) formato da due lingue. Nicola Parcesepe.

Standard Linguistico
Una lingua non marcata, teoricamente neutra; un modello, come quello insegnato in un manuale di grammatica, e un punto di riferimento; come tale è anche in parte un'astrazione. Solitamente corrisponde alla varietà più alta della lingua stessa. La standardizzazione di una lingua occorre per motivi storico-politici ed è spesso legata all'esigenza di disporre di una lingua ufficiale non ambigua.

COMPETENZA COMUNICATIVA
La "competenza comunicativa" è un espressione linguistica collegata non solo all' abilità di applicare le regole grammaticali di una lingua, ma anche alla capacità di usare la lingua in maniera appropriata in contesti significativi a livello culturale.

plurilinguismo
Situazione di una comunità o di un territorio in cui, per la posizione di confine o per la composizione etnica, sono in uso più lingue; anche, la capacità di un singolo individuo o di un gruppo etnico di esprimersi facilmente in più lingue, o anche dialetti, o di usare più livelli di linguaggio.

Icona
in semiologia, secondo la terminologia di Pierce, l'icona è uno dei tre tipi di segno che rappresenta il proprio oggetto per similarità. E.Conte

Sincronia
insieme di fatti o elementi considerati in un preciso momento, indipendentemente dalla loro evoluzione nel tempo. Calandrelli F.

Indice
Nella classificazione proposta da Peirce l' indice è il segno che funge da correlazione fra veicolo segnico e referente quando tra i due c'è un rapporto di contiguità: l'indice intrattiene un rapporto esistenziale con l'oggetto che significa. Esempi di indici sono la meridiana, la banderuola o la targa di un'auto. In breve, qualunque cosa attiri la nostra attenzione congiungendo due porzioni d'esperienza è un indice. Se viene meno la contiguità o la relazione esistenziale, viene meno anche l ' indicalità: una banderuola tolta dal tetto cessa di indicare la direzione del vento, una targa staccata dall'auto non ha più alcun potere indicale.

INDICE
Nella classificazione proposta da Peirce l'INDICE è segno quando la correlazione fra veicolo segnico e referente si basa su una contiguità: l'indice intrattiene un rapporto esistenziale con l'oggetto che significa. Esempi di indici sono la meridiana, la banderuola o la targa di un' automobile. In breve, qualunque cosa attiri la nostra attenzione congiungendo due porzioni di esperienza è un indice. Se viene meno la contiguità e la relazione esistenziale, viene meno anche l' indicalità.

Funzione conativa
Per funzione conativa si intende la funzione del linguaggio volta a far agire in qualche modo il ricevente, ottenendo da lui un certo comportamento. (es. mangia la torta!) A. DI PERNA

Diacronia. Il termine Diacronia ( uno dei tanti coniati da Saussure e diventati poi correnti nel vocabolario tecnico della ling

INDICE
lista delle parole presenti in un testo sottoposto a spoglio lessicale, ordinate alfabeticamente o in base alla frequenza delle occorrenze: indice delle forme lessicali, cioè delle unità lessicali così come compaiono nel testo, senza distinzione degli omografi; indice dei lemmi, cioè delle unità lessicali analizzate e ricondotte alla forma base con cui sono in genere registrate nei vocabolari. - Ciaramella-

funzione referenziale
È la funzione del linguaggio più denotativa, incentrata sul contenuto informativo. Consiste, dunque, nel riferimento (preciso e puntuale) al contesto spazio-temporale in cui avviene la comunicazione. È evidente a livello grammaticale nella deissi. J.INCOLLINGO

LINGUAGGIO
in linguistica facoltà di linguaggio è la predisposizione della specie umana ad acquisire almeno una lingua storico - naturale.

LINGUAGGIO
Capacità d'uso e uso stesso di un qualunque sistema di simboli adatti a comunicare;in particolare,la facoltà degli esseri umani di comunicare tra loro per mezzo delle parole di una lingua: linguaggio verbale; la capacità propria di altre specie viventi,oltre quella umana,per cui gli appartenenti a una stessa specie comunicano tra loro con un sistema di segnali.

Lingua
La lingua è un sistema di convenzioni fonetiche e grafiche, regolato da un insieme di norme morfologiche e sintattiche, che è accettato e utilizzato dai membri di un determinato gruppo etnico come mezzo di comunicazione scritta e orale per trasmettere informazioni, scambiare idee ed esprimere sentimenti. Sebbene siano organizzate in precise regole grammaticali, le lingue non sono sistemi chiusi e cristallizzati nel tempo. Esse, al contrario, si evolvono continuamente, riflettendo i cambiamenti storici, sociali e culturali che interessano le società umane, e si influenzano reciprocamente a seconda del prestigio politico, economico o letterario delle rispettive comunità.

Canale
È una connessione fisica e psicologica fra mittente e destinatario, che consenta loro di stabilire la comunicazione e mantenerla. È il mezzo attraverso il quale avviene la comunicazione. Ferri Luca

Messaggio
Notizia, annuncio, comunicazione che si trasmette ad altri a voce o per iscritto, per mezzo di persona o altri strumenti ( posta, telefono, ecc. ). Ferri Luca

CONTESTO
L'insieme delle varie parti che costituiscono una espressione linguistica o formano uno scritto,un discorso, un opera letteraria o poetica, inteso come un tutto uno organico. È la situazione in cui si svolge l'atto comunicativo. Ferri Luca

Codice
Insieme di segnali intenzionali, organizzati secondo regole precise, finalizzato alla produzione di messaggi. - Di Stefano

Comunicazione non verbale
È costituita da tutti quegli scambi che avvengono con modalità diverse da quella verbale: comprende tutto ciò che è comunicato tramite lo sguardo, la gestualità e la postura. - Di Stefano

Feedback
Informazione di ritorno attraverso cui l'emittente riesce a percepire se il destinatario ha compreso o meno il messaggio. - Di Stefano

Rumore
È un segnale di disturbo rispetto all'informazione trasmessa in un sistema. È un elemento, dunque, che impedisce il trasferimento dell'informazione. Produce un effetto di disturbo sul messaggio, impedendone la ricezione nella forma in cui è stato emesso.

Comunicazione paraverbale
É il livello della comunicazione che riguarda il modo in cui qualcosa viene detto, e quindi il tono, il timbro, la velocità, il volume della voce, ma anche le pause. É parte integrante del nostro modo di relazionarci agli altri, che utilizziamo spesso incosciamente per rendere la comunicazione più comprensibile. MIRI

Ricevente
Destinatario, colui che riceve e decodifica un messaggio formulato dall'emittente. MIRI

Emittente
Nella teoria della comunicazione, è colui che formula è invia il messaggio. MIRI

Emittente
Nella teoria della comunicazione, è colui che formula è invia il messaggio. MIRI

linguistica
sas

Morfologia

segno
l'unione di significante e significato. Elemento costitutivo dei sistemi linguistici e di qualunque codice.

fonologia

fonetica

segno

linguistica
disciplina che studia il linguaggio umano e le sue forme storiche.

Grillings
Barbecue, or to grill

Utmatrikulering
The end of your university years

bacalao
portuguese for cod fish

Rau sprut
Ketchup

Dekoder
Direct translates to decoder, but usually refers to a set-top box.

stinke digg
Used to describe something that smells awesome. It's a play with words, as stinke literary means a foul smell, but Digg means nice/good

strømming
Streaming something from the Web.

Sau
Sheep, animal

achievement hore
Someone who actively tries to get every achievement possible in a given game.

Sol
sun!

Hæstkuk
Common word used in northern parts of Norway describing someone acting as an ass

Pumpe sjarken
masturbate

Tilbakestående
Retarded

Møsbrømlefse
a lefse with møsbrøm

Hæstkuk
Horsepenis

heimlagaburger
Home made hamburger!

Brunost
Traditional cheese from Norway. The main ingredience is milk from cow or goat. There are several different kinds of brunost from the different parts of Norway. F.ex. Gudbrandsdalsost.

Ostehøvel

Kløne
A clumsy person.

Kløne
When you scratch someone by mistake (expression from Trøndelag ).

Kjøkkenmaskin
A device you use in the kitchen, for example for baking.

Kleimen
When something is sticky.

tvslave
A person who uses most of his time in front of the tv

kjæftsmurning
Lip balm for chopped lips

Skoiltlampætt
flashlight strapped to you head

På fetthåre
With little margin

Lørva
Another word for clothes

Gomslork
A shitty guy

Æ føle mæ så klar
When spoken from a person from Trøndelag, this sentence means, Im so tired, and not, Im so ready.

Krimbok
Criminal novel

Løfte skrot
Weightlifting

karsk
Coffee mixed with vodka.

kjærre
Used When describing a old car.

adventskalender
A calendar were you get One present every day of december until christmas eve.

fettoter
a person with a great desire for women

å gå langrenn
Cross country skiing. Typical Norwegian sport.

adventskalender
A calendar were you get One present every day of december until christmas eve.

Heimbrygga øl
Homebrew. Prefferably beer, since Homebrewed vodka is illegal in Norway

sløkkis
A word used to describe a lazy person. "han er en sløkkis".

rypejakt
Grouse hunting. A common hobby amongst Norwegians. Sometimes dogs are used to find the birds.

rypejakt
Grouse hunting. A common hobby amongst Norwegians. Sometimes dogs are used to find the birds.

koking
Copying someones assignment work to hand in as your own.

vors
Preparty!

tættis
tattoo

flæsk

sjett peis
someone who havent showered for a couple of days

sprut nerd
geek

Godemt
Feeling satisfied and sleepy after finishing a good meal. A word used in a dialect in the north of Trøndelag.

Noob
Used to describe someone who is new and unexperienced in a computer game. Often used as a taunt when someone do something stupid.

Tussi
When somerhing is exhausting.

kæltøka luggumt
Used to describe something that is very good or nice. Typical dialect phrase used in Gudbrandsdalen.

sink
Vask

goggletan
Skibum tan

klabb
klumsete

barm
a bun is called a barm in Lancashire, e.g. chip barm is chips in a bun.

fully licensed
permission to sell alcohol

goggletan
Tan line around eyes from wearing goggles in the ski slopes

flæsk
Bacon

sjark
Fishing boat

klein
Not feeling so good / hungover / awkward

enfermiere
infermiere

What's up
How do you do?

rock
you are my rock

rock
form of music

decomposed

Klæbb
A clumsy person

Å råne
Slang for driving around in the car with no particular purpose or goal

20 speik
-20C. When its freezing outside, the word speik is used behind the temperature when spoken

Sodd
Soup with meat. Served with bread and potatoes

Ostehøvel
Cheese slicer

hannah
lol

skeuomorph
a skeuomorph is a physical ornament or design on an object made to resemble another material or technique

mug

marinated kid
goat

fado
traditional portuguese music

fado
traditional portuguese music

saudade
sentimento ao mesmo tempo de tristeza, melancolia, e um misto de alegria perdida no tempo.

fado
traditional portuguese music

gutted
the building's been gutted

korsó
sör fogyasztására alkalmas üveg edény, pohár

mina

plauku lankelis

den som sover synder ikke
hvis du ikke gjør noe, gjør du ikke noe feil.

gladlaks

modesty board
board fixed to front of desk to hide legs and feet from view

pull an all-nighter
stay up all night studying, usually to prepare for an exam

skaičiuotuvas

telecomando
serve a controllare le funzioni della televisione

cattedra
tavolo dell'insegnante

Fruktkort
Directly translates to the NTNU slang Fruit Card. The offer is officially known as Fruit Subscription, which in Norwegian is "frukt abonnement". A fruit subscription you can purchase at SiT Kiosks at Gløshaugen and Dragvoll at NTNU.  This is a step towards securing good health among students, making it easy to eat your daily fruit.  A per-month subscription costs 50 Norwegian Kroners and runs from the first of every month. This gives you one fruit from the kiosk from Monday to Friday.   Alternatively you can purchase a subscription for the whole semester, which costs 250 Norwegian Kroners. So how does it work? Bring along your fruit card to the kiosks and present it at the counter and you will receive your choice of fruit, usually a choice between bananas, oranges, apples, pears and clementines.  Fun fact: When they offer mandarins you are usually allowed to take three clementines instead of one, as is the rule with other fruits. 

Post-it notes
Post-its, or sticky notes, are small notes with adhesive on the back. This allows them to be attached, removed and reattached to surfaces without problems. If placed on a wall, for example in a war room, the information on a post-it note is available for everyone in the group, which makes these small notes an efficient way to physically share small bits of information. Post-it notes can also be used in brainstorming, post mortem analyses, or for organizing information.

gamification
is the use of game design techniques, game thinking and game mechanics to enhance non game contexts. Gamification is often used for motivating users to do so something. In contrast to gamification, games are played voluntarly. Games have rules, goales and a feedback system. Gamifications miss at least of these components. E.g. the famouse likebutton is a gamification. Anotherway to describe a gamification is that it contains non-game related contents as significant part of the product. Games are fun. Gamifications are the approach to make something more fun, so people like it and use it more often. Typical gamification elements are highscores, experience points, progess bars, virtual goods (e.g. gold) and achievments. By motivating users you could improve dataquality, time of use, learning success and customer tie. Reference: NTNU Cooperation Technology Course - games Lecture slides. "Gamification towards sustainable mobile applications" (2011)Kasirun,Y.M., Chun Kiat Gan http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gameification

Appropriation
Appropriation is the process where people adopt and adapt technologies to let them fit into their working practices. It is similar to customisation, but concerns the adoption patterns of technology and the transformation of practice at a deeper level[1]. Appropriation could also mean that a tool is used in a different way than it was normally meant to be used. In this way, new functionalities could be addressed to certain tools. For research purposes, it is interesting to see how certain tools are appropriated in the working environment, and how tools could support collaboration. Another word often used for appropriation is tailorability. [1] Dourish, P.: The appropriation of interactive technologies: Some lessons from placeless documents. Computer Supported CooperativeWork (2003)

Awareness
Awareness is defined as an "understanding of the activities of others, which provides a context for your own activity". Without awareness a group member cannot build his sense of a group and the human-human paradigm will remain mainly on the intentional level[1]. The term awareness in CSCW can be subdivided into more specific, overlapping definitions. Some of these more specific definitions are: Presence awareness, workspace awareness, group awareness and situation awareness. Presence awareness can be defined as the knowledge that other people are present in the same environment whereas action awareness is the awareness of the things that these people are doing. This is then again also related to workspace awareness, which refers to the knowledge of each others activities in a (shared) workspace.[2] Group and situation awareness are tightly linked to workspace awareness. Situation awareness is the awareness one might have over a current situation he is in. This could be work related, but could also be used in other settings. [1] ( Sohlenkamp, M. & Chwelos, G. “Integrating Communication, Cooperation, and Awareness: The DIVA Virtual Office Environment”, In Proceedings of CSCW '94, ACM Press, Chapel Hill, USA, 1994, pp. 331-343.) [2]Gutwin, C. and S. Greenberg (1996): Workspace Awareness for Groupware. Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Vancouver, pp. 208–209.

feedback revision control
thanks for the feedback, I tried to use titles to structure the text but on the website of lingobee the "new line characters" are ignored.moreover I have a bug on the application that limit the maximum number of character that I can see. I gave a feedback to the developer. finally lingobee doesn't provide some styling option like "bold" so is quite hard to make an entry readable

Revision control systems
Definition Revision control systems (AKA version control systems) are tools for the management of changes to documents, computer programs, web sites, and other collections of digital informations. This tools allows groups of people work together on the same documents because they keep track of the changings creating different versions, managing conflicts and helping workers in other advanced ways. Examples Two famous VCS are Git and Subversion[1]. They both help software developers to maintain the progression of the coding, easily divide the work among people and working from different locations. Those tools provides also a secure backup as the data are usually stored in a central server accessed by multiple clients. Thus, the developers can focus on the coding/editing without worry about data loss or corruption. How they work Those systems could work in different ways. Basically, the files are stored in a shared repository. The simplest method of preventing concurrent access problems involves locking files so that only one developer at a time has write access to the central repository copies of those files. Another option could be the version merging. Most version control systems allow multiple developers to edit the same file at the same time. Merging two files can be a very delicate operation, and usually possible only if the data structure is simple, as in text files. In the future The emerging trend of these years about VCS, concerns the Distributed VCS as for example Git. Those tools takes a peer-to-peer approach to version control, as opposed to the client-server approach of centralized systems and they allows faster operations. Awareness and Coordination on VCS This tools lack of mutual awareness. They are build for assure concurrent editing, so there is no real-time control of the activity of the co-workers. Is come cases, e.g. with complex projects, awareness could be an important element for speed up the collaboration process and increase the goodness of a product. Daniel Machado & others

Virtual reality (part 1)
Merriam-Webster Encyclopaedia defines virtual reality as "an artificial environment which is experienced through sensory stimuli (as sights and sounds) provided by a computer and in which one's actions partially determine what happens in the environment". Virtual reality is mostly thought of as a term describing computer simulated environments, be it renditions of real world locations or that of imaginary worlds, often highly visual and in 3D. Users can experience physical presence in such worlds and interact with them and other users in them through the use of computerized gear, aiding them to see, hear, talk, move around, touch and in some cases even taste and smell. Indeed, the making of references to technological equipment is common in most popular definitions of the term. Besides the word computer, one will often find mentioned the use of wired gloves, other pieces of wired clothing, headphones, position trackers and head-mounted stereoscopic displays (expressed less scientifically as "video goggles"). Check out this video at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WRr2Q6jFu9w (click the link button on the right side of this page) to see an example of what the use of such equipment can look like. [continued in part 2]

Virtual Reality (part 2)
There is a wide range of uses that virtual reality can be applied to - anything from aiding doctors doing surgery, teaching pilots to fly aircraft safely or helping architects design buildings to allowing friends to have a sword fight with each other in a game. It can take us to places we wouldn't be able to get to in the real world, and allow us to experience things that are normally inaccessible or impossible. Here's a video explaining how virtual reality can be used in the treatment of anxiety: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ppm2lhpkXs (click the link button on the right side of this page) Not all computer scientists will agree to a definition of virtual reality by linking it so closely to the use of technological equipment. In his article "Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence", Jonathan Steuer argues the need to form a more theoretically useful concept of virtual reality by defining it as a particular experience rather than a collection of hardware. He applies the definition "a real or simulated environment in which a perceiver experiences telepresence", in which telepresence is described as "the experience of presence in an environment by means of a communication medium". References: [1] Wexelblat, A (1995) "The Reality of Cooperation: Virtual Reality and CSCW" in "Virtual Reality - Applications and Explorations", Academic Press (1995), ed. by Alan Wexelblat, pp. 23-44 [ http://edumatica.ing.ula.ve/teleclases/tecnomatica/Animatica/Teleclase/Formacion/Virtualia/Virtual.Reality.-.Applications.And.Explorations.pdf#page=40 ] [2] Steuer, J (1993) "Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence" [ http://ww.cybertherapy.info/pages/telepresence.pdf ] [3] Strickland, J., "How Virtual Reality Works" [ http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/gadgets/other-gadgets/virtual-reality.htm ]

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Groupware
Groupware, often used as a synonym for CSCW, has received an enormous amount of press in recent years, as the advantages of using computers as support for business processes and workflow has been realized. Groupware generally supports interaction carried out by a group of individuals with computer support. Groupware refers to programs that help people work together collectively while located remotely from each other. Groupware services can include the sharing of calendars, collective writing, e-mail handling, shared database access, electronic meetings with each person able to see and display information to others, and other activities. Groupware is often broken down into categories describing whether or not work group members collaborate in real time (synchronous groupware and asynchronous groupware). Programs that enable real time collaboration are called synchronous groupware. Some product examples of groupware include Lotus Notes and Microsoft Exchange, both of which facilitate calendar sharing, e-mail handling, and the replication of files across a distributed system so that all users can view the same information. Electronic "face-to-face" meetings are facilitated by CU-SeeMe and Microsoft NetMeeting. Source: http://searchdomino.techtarget.com/definition/groupware

Communication
Communication comes from the latin word communis, which means to share. More specifically communication involves sharing of information between at least two parties. This information can be anything; ideas, feelings, messages, facts, opinions, insight, anything. Communication can be divided into formal and informal communication. In formal communication the language is kept strict, resulting in no slang, and the trivial is kept to a minimum. Hierarchy plays a crucial part in formal communication. Therefore there is often a procedure, a set of norms or rules, for each type of formal communication that describes who to communicate with (i.e where in the hierarchy)  and how to communicate with them.It is often in writing and typical communication channels are formal letters and emails, journals, policies, official meetings and reports. Informal communication is characterized by the participants communicating in an interactive way in a looser language, often oral, that it is unscheduled with non fixed participants. It often has an unarranged agenda and is rich in content. Informal communication can travel through any communication channel that is not a formal one. It can be very efficient, due to the communication skipping all formalities. However informal communication is rarely used up or down through hierarchies, and it can also cause uncertainties in responsibility. References: [1] Dr. R Jayasree, Effective Communication, Institute of Management in Government, Available:  http://www.img.kerala.gov.in/docs/downloads/communication.pdf [2] Understand The Difference Between Formal and Informal Communication, Available: http://basiccollegeaccounting.com/2009/05/understand-the-difference-between-formal-and-informal-communication/ [3] Robert E. Kraut, Robert S. Fish, Robert W. Root, and Barbara L. Chalfonte (1990), Informal Communication in Organizations: Form, Function, and Technology, Available:  http://kraut.hciresearch.org/sites/kraut.hciresearch.org/files/articles/Kraut89-InformalCommunicationInOrganizations.p

Awareness
Simply speaking, awareness is ‘knowing what’s going on’ (Endsley, 1995). The term awareness came to be when researchers discovered an interesting aspect of human collaboration. Actors seemed to be monitoring their collaborative surroundings, and worked in a way that did not disturb their colleagues (Harper, Hughes, & Shapiro, The Functionality of Flight Strips in ATC Work. The report for the Civil Aviation Authoroty, 1998), (Harper, Hughes, & Shapiro, Working in harmony: An examination of computer technology in air traffic control , 1989), (Heath & Luff, 1991). That meant not asking questions, reminding or suggesting thoughts to their colleagues unless they perceived them to be available, while they themselves made sure to display signs of availability to other actors when that was the case. Because of these observations, awareness was considered to be the situation where actors take heed of the context of their joint effort (Schmidt, 2002). Within co-located collaboration, awareness is mostly unproblematic. In distributed settings however, getting the right signals at the right time, and interpreting them correctly, can be a much harder task (Divitini, 2012). In a physical environment actors can easily understand what is going on around them. The problem in distributed CSCW is how to incorporate this awareness in a digital cooperative setting. One of the challenges in this area is the limited possibilities for gathering and presenting audio or visual clues in a sensible way in a digital environment (Divitini, 2012). In the CSCW context, awareness is often associated with different types of workspaces (Heath, Svensson, Hindmarsh, Luff, & vom Lehn, 2002). These workspaces, often exemplified with physical rooms or collaborative settings, are used as a guide when developing media spaces that facilitates awareness.   References Endsley, M. R. (1995). Toward a Theory of Situation Awareness in Dynamic Systems. Human Factors , 32-64. Divitini, M. (2012, September 9). Awareness. Trondheim, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway. Harpe

Synchronous and asynchronous Communication
Synchronous communication occurs in real-time, and engage users to communicate instantly (Ashley, 2003). When it comes to CSCW, synchronous communication can happen when participants are in the same geographical place or at different places as long as the users collaborate at the same time (Baecker, 1995). Asynchronous communication on the other hand, does not require that participants are communicating at the same time. When doing CSCW, users can also be at the same place or at different places. Asynchronous collaboration tools support communication and collaboration when group participants collaborate at different time, and they are also typically geographically dispersed (Baecker, 1995). Related to CSCW, synchronous communication tools can be digital whiteboards or projectors when group members are at the same place, and videoconferencing or instant messaging when members are geographically dispersed (Wikipedia, 2012). Asynchronous tools can be large displays when group members are at the same place, while email or blogs are examples of tools when users are not at the same place. References: Ashley, J. (2003, December 1). Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication Tools. Retrieved November 4, 2012, from ASAE: The center for association leadership: http://www.asaecenter.org/Resources/articledetail.cfm?itemnumber=13572 Baecker, R. (1995). Readings in human-computer interaction: toward the year 2000. N/A: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. Wikipedia. (2012, October 2012). Computer-supported cooperative work. Retrieved Novemner 2012, 2012, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-supported_cooperative_work

Avatar
Character digital representations of users inside a collaborative virtual environment (CVE) are normally called avatars, and in most cases these are human or human-like figures. In CVE, the importance of making the avatars human or human-like is severe to avoid confusion of the collaborative environment from a game. The possibility to express oneself emotionally through an avatar is also an aspect that should be taken into consideration.  According to Picard, experiencing other peoples’ emotions influences decisions and therefore this is important in problem solving and cognition [1].  In addition, emotions can bring motivation and encouragement to others, and are therefore important in learning and collaborative environments. Lastly, emotionally expressive avatars, such as human-like avatars, have the ability to bring out a feeling of empathy from the user, making it possible to get a more accurate understanding of the other avatars, facilitating distributed collaboration as it becomes more like it is in real-life.  Casanueva and Blake [2] investigated the correlation between avatars and co-presence in collaborative virtual environments. By using a questionnaire they measured the effects that avatars have on co-presence.  They define co-presence as “the feeling that other participants in the virtual environment actually exist and are really present in the environment, and the feeling that one is interacting with real people”.  They found out that the more realistic the avatars are the more co-presence was created, supporting the use of human-like avatars.  In addition, when having gestures and facial expressions, the co-presence was even higher.  This shows that avatars, specifically human-like avatars, can have a positive effect on online collaboration by enhancing co-presence,  which makes cooperation easier.   Due to recent technology advancements, CVEs where users can interact and collaborate via avatars in 3D worlds have become more and more common in home and professional usage the latter years. Customiza

Socio-Technical
The term socio-technical describes the fit “between the technical subsystem and the social subsystem which together make up an organization” (Eric Trist and Hugh Murray, 2005). It was introduced by researchers at the Tavistock Institute in London already in the 1950s, which had a need to describe this relation. Sociotechnical theory is therefore concerned around joint optimization, with a shared emphasis on achievement of both excellence in technical performance and quality in people's work lives. The technical subsystem includes any technical tool or aspect changing inputs into products that contributes to empowering the economic performance of the organization. The social subsystem involves all workers, including their knowledge, skills and the values they bring with them into the work situation. The socio-technical approach thus designs a process that would join the subsystems optimally. To have maximum performance, an organization needs to recognize the interdependency between these two subsystems. The conflicting ideas to this approach are the focus on either humanistic or managerial principles. (Land, 200) The former focuses on job satisfaction related to the socio-technical approach, which will result in better productivity and value added to the organization. The latter states that a socio-technical approach is merely to obtain economical goals. A socio-technical approach is highly relevant when using CSCW, as it combines the computer- and technical side with cooperation which can be handled humanistic. CSCW projects are only successful if they yield this “socio-technical” approach (Kunau, 2006). With computer based collaborative tools the social factor will always come into play, and should therefore always be considered. Examples are work patterns, presence, coordination and such.(Divitini, 2012)  It is therefore important to emphasize the socio-technical aspect when working with CSCW, so that the tools can be tailored to the people using it. Refrences: Eric Trist and Hugh Murray, A. C.

Ambiguity
Ambiguity can be defined as the following: “Ambiguity of information, in words, pictures, or other media, is the ability to express more than one interpretation. It is generally contrasted with vagueness, in that specific and distinct interpretations are permitted (although some may not be immediately apparent), whereas with information that is vague, it is difficult to form any interpretation at the desired level of specificity.” Ambiguity is in other words a way of exploiting the value of different interpretations and perceptions. The relevance of the term ambiguity in the concept of cooperation technology is stated by Stacey and Eckert. “[...]the idea that ambiguous communication facilitates cooperative designing is now widely accepted and regarded as a consensus view, at least among architects and sociologically-oriented researchers in the field of computer supported cooperative work.” (Eckert & Stacey, 2003) The ability to support communication in collaborative work from different perspectives is a central part in this field, and this is where ambiguity finds its role. In cooperation technology, impressions and input, in all its forms, will come from different cultures, locations, senses and dimensions. It is crucial to express the ambiguity of these in a reasonable and righteous way. Exploiting the value of ambiguity will contribute to the most efficient use of the data and interpretations provided, regarding computer supported collaborative work. References: Wikipedia. (2012, October 14th). Ambiguity. Retrieved November 5th, 2012, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambiguity Eckert, C. & Stacey M. Against Ambiguity. Computer Supported Cooperative Work 12: 153–183, 2003.

Tailorability
Dictionary.com defines tailorability as "capable of being adapted to a given purpose or function". Tailorability of a system makes it possible to customize it. In CSCW, tailorability is something that is encountered a lot as cooperative work is so dynamic and diverse that customization is necessary (Stiemerling, 1999). The reason why tailorability is advantageous is that when using a system for cooperative work you can adapt the system to the groups’ preferences by making changes to the features so that they fit well with the groups’ needs. This facilitates cooperation.  There are different kinds of tailorability of a system, ranging from users performing basic customizations and programmers creating advanced customizations.  Component-based tailorability is common in CSCW.  An example of component-based tailorability with a  CSCW application are tailored distributed coordination tools such as shared To do lists.  This needs to be tailorable for example after  what types of groups use it, whether they have hierarchical or flat structures.  Distributed Component-Based Tailorability for CSCW Applications includes more about the technical aspects of component-based tailorability in this example (Stiemerling, 1999).Other interesting research about tailorability within CSCW are Stiemerling´s (2000) dissertation about component-based tailorability and Teege (2000) article about user tailorability.  References:  Stiemerling, O. (1999) “Distributed component-based tailorability for CSCW applications”, in Hinken, R. and Cremers, A.B. (eds) Autonomous Decentralized Systems, Integration of Heterogeneous Systems. Proceedings, IEEE Conference Publications, pp.345 – 352. Stiemerling, O. (2000) Component-Based Tailorability (2000), Dr. rer. Nat, University of Bonn Teege, G. (2000). “Users as Composers: Parts and Features as a Basis for Tailorability in CSCW Systems”, Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW), 9 (1), pp.101-122.

Virtual team
Powell, Picolli & Ives (2004) defines virtual teams to be: “groups of geographically, organizationally and/or time dispersed workers brought together by information and telecommunication technologies to accomplish one or more organizational tasks”. Members of virtual teams communicate electronically and may never meet face-to-face. There is almost an unlimited range of tools a virtual team can utilize. For example Google Docs can be used for text editing, while Second Life, a tool where all members create an avatar, can be used to create a more real-life environment for discussions, meetings etc. Due to improvements in communication technology virtual teams are becoming more and more popular in organizations (Ebrahim, Ahmed, & Taha, 2009). One reason for this is that virtual teams allow companies to put together the best team without taking geography etc. into consideration (Wikipedia, 2012). Having an understanding of what a virtual team is, and its advantages and disadvantages are therefore important when working with CWCS.   Ebrahim, Ahmed & Taha (2009) argues that some of the advantages and disadvantages of virtual teams are: Advantages: - High flexibility when configuring the team. - Effective when making decisions - Facilitates knowledge capturing, and eases knowledge sharing. - Enables cross department and cross skilled workers to collaborate. Disadvantages: - May require complex and hard-to-use technological tools - Communication can break down, and often weaker trust between participants. - Often cultural and functionality diversity that can be challenging to sort out when not having face-to-face time.       There are several different types of virtual teams (Duarte and Snyder, 2006). Because of this the tools that can be used are also vastly different and should therefore support different functions depending on the team. References: Wikipedia. (2012, June 21). Virtual team. Retrieved Novemner 4, 2012, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_team Ebrahim, N. A., Ahmed, S

Tailorability

Tailorability
Tailorability in CSCW has to do with how users adapts a technology to their own particular situation. (MacKay, 1991). Tailorability requirements exists because of individual user differences and the fact that tools are used for a variety of collaborative tasks. (Kaplan et. Al, 1991). Software is defined as tailorable if it is possible to adapt it to the user by making changes to it. Usually the tailoring is aimed at improving the user-interface, information structure and functionality of the application (Wang & Haake, 2000).   Mørch (1997b) defines three levels of tailoring in CSCW-applications; customization, integration and extension. Customization involves selecting between pre-defined configuration options and requires a minimum of experience and knowledge to perform. Integration allows selecting and connecting components within or between applications. It might require some knowledge to implement successfully. Extension involves adding program code to the application and requires quite extensive knowledge and experience. Tailoring might in addition to these three involve collaborative tailoring, where the different users work together on modifying the application. (Teege, 1999). Given that users in groups are highly different, a tailorable technology/software will enable more users to use it, and be more efficient. One example of tailorability in CSCW-applications is Tviews, short for tailorable views. It is a customization tool focusing on the user-interface. It enables the user to drag and drop representations of application objects on the screen, aligning them in the way he or she finds most convenient. (Wasserschaft, 1997). References: MacKay, W.E. (1991). "Patterns of sharing customizable software". Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work. ACM Press New York, NY, USA. pp. 209–221.                                            Gunnar Teege(1991). ”Users as Composers: Parts and Features as a Basis for Tailorability in CSCW Systems.” Kaplan, S.M., A.M. Carroll and

Mobility
The ability to be mobile is an important term when it comes to CSCW. Nowadays, people move around a lot of the time to attend meetings at different locations, get to and from work or to work at different locations. A worker who is used to work at several locations, in different settings and contexts, needs to be able to work efficiently, and therefore mobility is a useful and important aspect to consider when developing or choosing CSCW software. In order to achieve mobility, mobile computing is an important factor of the work setting. Mobile computing makes it possible to work anywhere and at any time, which is a positive effect, but unfortunately mobility may also lead to an unpredictable work space, as the device capabilities or network connections may be poor or insufficient at some times. Being able to work mobile might make it easier to finish work or answer work e-mail on the way to and from work, from home or on holiday. An example of a mobile workspace is this very app, which can be updated at any time and from anywhere where there is an internet connection. This makes it easier to use all the features of the app such as taking a picture or adding a voice which suits the entry. Literature: Farshchian, B. A. & Divitini, M. (2010)) "Collaboration Support for Mobile Users in Ubiquitous Environments". In Handbook of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments (AISE), (Eds, Hideyuki Nakashima, Juan Augusto & Hamid Aghajan): Springer.

Groupware
Groupware, also known as collaborative software, are programs that are designed for people who are working together to achieve different goals and is an important element in CSCW [1,2]. There are often referred to two types of groupware, synchronous groupware and asynchronous groupware. Synchronous groupware is software that allows real-time collaboration, whereas asynchronous groupware doesn't allow this feature. Within synchronous software it is possible to differentiate between support for face-to-face, where the collaboration takes place in the same place and at the same time, and distributed synchronization, where the collaborators are at different places but present at the same time. The same differentiation is present in asynchronous groupware where it is possible to collaborate at the same place, but at different times, and the other possibility where both time and place is different leading to an asynchronous distributed collaboration environment [3]. Some examples of groupware are Microsoft NetMeeting, Microsoft Exchange and Lotus Notes. [1] http://searchdomino.techtarget.com/definition/groupware [2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collaborative_software [3] Ellis et al. [91]

ÆØÅ
The Norwegian alphabet differs from the English alphabet by adding the three vocals Æ, Ø and Å after the Z. The letters are also found in the danish alphabet. The letters are used in many common Norwegian words such as 'kjøkken'(kitchen), væske (liquid) and 'måke'(shovel, seagull). The letter Ø is commonly written as 'OE' in English, Æ as 'AE' and Å as 'AA'. Pronounciation: Ø: sounds like the 'i' in "bird" or 'u' in "hurt". Æ: sounds like 'a' in "cat". Å: sounds like 'a' in "all".

AtB
AtB is the bus company that operates the bus routes in Trondheim. If you don't have a car, and you don't want to use a bike or walk by foot, this is the company that saves you. A single bus ticket cost 40 NOK, and a day pass cost 100 NOK. A day pass can only be bought in the offices of AtB. It is also possible to use their popular t:kort to buy a number of days to travel, making the bustrip easier on faster. AtB is short for A to B (as they will drive you from point A to point B). The t is pronounced 'te', which is a local form of the word 'til'. Route tables and other information can be found at http://www.atb.no

Shared workspace
A space for working is a prerequisite for working individually and cooperatively . Providing virtual spaces where people are able to work together independently from their location is one main aims for computer-supported cooperative work.A shared workspace should also support different aspects of sharing information and enable group members and manipulate artifacts related to their activities[1]. [1]Gutwin, C., & Greenberg, S. (2002). A descriptive framework of workspace awareness for real-time groupware. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), 11(3), 411-446

web conferencing
Web conferencing make it possible to arrange and attend a conference, even though the partivipants is not at the same geographical place. Web conferencing means that the communication is sendt through the web. This can be telephone conferencing, only using sound or video conferencing where you also use cameras to make the communication more complete. There can also be two ore more participants. There is several advantages using this kind of conferencing. First, it makes it easier to work together in geographical diverse teams, because you can have meatings as often as required for your team to be efficient and effective without using time and money on traveling. You can also put together a team with the skills that you need without thinking about them beeing to far away. And second, it makes employees more flexible, which means that more tome can be used to work rather than traveling. Web conferencing, specially video conferencing is more and more popular, and is getting more and more advanced. Now you can buy whole video conferencing rooms, tailor made for the best, and most real face-to-face feeling. http://www.oslokongressenter. no/motelokaler/teknikk/videokonferanse/

Awareness

Webinar
Webinar is made out of the words Web and seminar. It is a way to have presentatoins for pepole on geographical diverse places. You van see what happens at the computer of the one holding the presentation, while you hear his/her voice explaining. To attend a webinar you need a computer and a phone. However, you do not se the presenter or the other participants, and they can not see you, meaning that you can wear whatever. In most cases you have to register in advance, and then sign in to a given url just before the seminar is about to start. The different webinar softwares offer different features. Some of the more common is that you can ask questions (e.g. via IM) to the presenter, and that the presenter can send out poll for the participants to answer. then the rest of the participants can see the results. Some also have an option for VoIP. Then you can use this instead of you phone to listen to the presentation. The avantages is the same as for web conferencing: First, it makes it easier to work together in geographical diverse teams, because you can have meatings as often as required for your team to be efficient and effective without using time and money on traveling. You can also put together a team with the skills that you need without thinking about them beeing to far away. And second, it makes employees more flexible, which means that more tome can be used to work rather than traveling. http://www.e-conomic.no/regnskapsprogram/ordliste/webinar http://www.cfids.org/webinar/what-is-a-webinar.asp

Shared Information Space
A shared space where collaborators can put and acquire information that should be available to distributed members of the same collaborative project or organization. In the traditional sense can be viewed as a database system that collaborators have access to. The definition of a shared information space can further be extended to also contain the agreed interpretation of the information shared and how to utilize the information. The physical entity of the shared information space often does not contain any information about utilization of the objects stored nor the context from which it was created, meaning that without shared interpretation the objects can be arbitrary for other collaborators within the same project. Problems such as unused objects or duplicate objects (not necessarily identical, but objects serving the same purpose) can occur in the event of poor meta-information about the shared physical space. Information sharing becomes constantly more important due to low margins in always more competitive markets. This makes (tailored) software for internal sharing of information a desirable service. There is also possible to add tools to analyse the information shared, tag, sort and cross reference it and so on. Source: Liam Bannon, Susanne Bødker (1997) - Constructing Common Information Spaces

NTNU
Gløshaugen

Awareness
A term referring to shared knowledge of the workspace and ongoing activities therein, between users of a CSCW tool. The type of information represented here is often not explicit, and a person does not necessarily have a conscious understanding of the actual knowledge. In the real world, the majority of information available is not consciously processed, yet one is aware of it to some degree. Awareness features in CSCW are intended to help users gain a better understanding of the situation through the same mechanisms. Different types of awareness include: Informal awareness - who is present and what are they doing Social awareness - information about another person gained when interacting with them, such as emotional state Structural awareness - how are people organized in the group To enhance awareness among users, it is helpful to provide audiovisual cues that provide information about the environment and other users. In systems with more traditional GUIs, widgets like miniature views and visualization of the other users' points of views and cursors can be helpful. Sources: www.nada.kth.se/kurser/kth/2D1416/old/1999/material/F8a.html Carl Gutwin, Mark Roseman and Saul Greenberg (1996) - A Usability Study of Awareness Widgets in a Shared Workspace Groupware System

Stud.ass
A "stud.ass" is a student that is hierd by his or her university to help younger students to learn a subject he or she has already taken. It is also common for the stud.ass to review the student's excercises(øvinger, see the picture) during the semester. Would you like to work as a stud.ass? Follow the link to see which positions are avaliable.

CSCW
Acronym for Computer Supported Cooperative Work, a term used to describe technologies that seek to promote human collaboration with the help of computer systems. Groupware is a type of CSCW. The term appeared in 1984 to describe a workshop at MIT, and has since become a widespread term. It is a multidisciplinary field, encompassing elements from AI, psychology, sociology, User Interface design and distributed systems, to name a few. CSCW aims to increase productivity in tasks that require teamwork by making better use of computers and associated technologies. As such, it is an important field of study in modern society. Sources: www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/CSCW.html Kevin L. Mills (2003) - Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

Stud.ass
A stud.ass is a student that is hired by his or her university to help younger students to help younger students to learn a subject he or she has already taken. It is aldo common for the stud.ass to review the students exercisrs(øvinger, see picture) during the semester. Do you want a job as s stud.ass? Follow the link to see what positions are avaliable.

Time/Place Taxonomy
A basic method of categorizing CSCW tools. It can be represented as a matrix which is divided into four cells, where different tools can be grouped. On one axis, the distinction is made between tools that are intended to be used by people in the same physical space(colocated) and tools that are to be used by people at different locations(remote). On the other axis, the distinction is made between tools where the collaborators should use it at the same time(synchronous), and tools that are intended to be used by people at different points in time(asynchronous). This method of categorizing tools is useful since the collaborative workflow is usually heavily influenced by whether the work is distributed across time or space. Source: Baecker, R.M.; Others, (1995). Readings in human-computer interaction: toward the year 2000. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Under Dusken
Under Dusken is a magazine created by and for the students in Trondheim. In the magazine you can read stories about what is going on in the city, especially things concerning students and things they are interested in. You can see a picture of one of the magazines below. In the sound clip you can hear one of the leading experts in norwegian language, Per Egil Hegge, give the magazine a good review. You can visit the online version by clicking the link.

Bunad

War rooms
A war room is a room that can be used for conferences and planning. Groups in war rooms exchange ideas and information in an active way by posting notes (such as to-do lists) on walls, using special equipment in the room, like charts, and having all the work available for everyone to see. This strengthens collaboration. Using a war room could double productivity. Since the work that is posted on walls is visible to everyone in the war room, coordination of work and people becomes easier, and there is constant awareness of the group's progress and of what everyone is doing. That way, if one group member is having problems, the others can help them out right away, or if two group members start discussing something, the others can join in to have a spontaneous group meeting. Radical collocation, which is to do all your work within your group in one room, is an effect of using war rooms, and makes communication between group members easier since they're all in the same place. This, and the added awareness, reduces the amount of time spent on "catch-up meetings" - meetings that are held to inform every group member of the latest news. Spending time together in a confined space can also help with team building.

Synchronized and Asynchronized Communication
Forgot to add source: "The impact of 3D virtual environments on communication patterns" Saleeb, N. / Looms, M. (2012)

Serious games
Serious games involve all games that are not specifically designed with entertainment at heart (1). Mostly these involve academic endeavours and are primarily utilized in school situations with younger students, though many other applications exist. Many games, for example, are developed with corporate training situations in mind, as well as simulators for military training (one good example of this is Americas Army). Most of these, however, are still designed with the purpose of learning. This software may allow users to experience a tailored learning environment that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to create in the real world(1). Serious games involve all kinds of elearning and edutainment. Src> Serious Games: An Overivew (Susi, Johansson, Backlund 2007)

Roomware
Roomware consists of computer-augmented room elements with integrated information and communication technology facilitating new forms of human-computer interaction. They are part of an approach that the ‘world around us’ is the interface to information and for the cooperation of people. The Roomware components were developed at GMD’s Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute (IPSI) in Darmstadt. It can be supportive tool in the activities like brainstorming, project designing and discussion etc. Cooperation is supported in the context of social interaction and information sharing.

Videoconferencing
Videoconferencing is the conduct of a videoconference (also known as a video conference or videoteleconference) by a set of telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to communicate by simultaneous two-way video and audio transmissions. It has also been called 'visual collaboration' and is a type of groupware. Videoconferencing differs from videophone calls in that it's designed to serve a conference or multiple locations rather than individuals. Main features that are supported by video conferencing are conversation that can be made by two or more people that are not in the same place and video that can be included in the call so that participants in the call can see each other. It is an intermediate form of videotelephony, first deployed commercially in the United States by AT&T Corporation during the early 1970s as part of their development of Picturephone technology. With the introduction of relatively low cost, high capacity broadband telecommunication services in the late 1990s, coupled with powerful computing processors and video compression techniques, videoconferencing usage has made significant inroads in business, education, medicine and media. Now days there are many defferent tools that suport videoconferencing and some of them are free. Videoconferencing has become very important part of cooperation between people now days. Its main advantages are that people do not need to travel to other places for the meeting; for that reason the meeting are cheaper; participants can see, hear and interact with each other as though meeting in the same room; video provides the picture body language and gestures can be visible if within video camera range; and it is easy to set up and use. But as all technologies videoconferencing has its disadvantages, some of them are: participants are less relaxed and spontaneous in front of a camera than face-to-face; body language is visible only when video camera captures every participant; eye-to-eye contact is simulated but ineffective; the Technol

Computer-supported cooperative work
CSCW is a generic term, which combines the understanding of the way people work in groups with the enabling technologies of computer networking, and associated hardware, software, services and techniques. It is a design-oriented academic field that brings together a lot of people from very different fields. CSCW goes beyond technology itself and focus more on the cooperation between within groups, and what impact technology have on how people work together. CSCW goes great together with groupware, wish is software that supports activities within groups. CSCW as well as groupware, or at least the two of them together makes cooperating with many people, especially in big groups, a lot easier. "To evaluate CSCW application will therefore require an approach based on social psychology and anthropology" ~ Jonathan Grudin

Synchronized and Asynchronized Communication
synchronized communication is when two og more people communicate in real time. When you must answer a question while you get it, you don't have the time to redo your answer, like a face-to-face conversation. Asynchronized communication is when you have long time committing your answer, like e-mails. There could be very helpful to use different virtual environment tools for both kinds of communication. To use such tools makes it possible to do communication without being on the same space (in the real world), which often makes it easier to arrange meetings. There are many tools for synchronized communications, examples are virtual academica and second life. We have used both these tools for lectures, and we have also used second life for giving a presentation for our class. This ment that we did not have to meet in a school classroom, but just meet up at a specified link on the internet. It was a totally new experience for us, but we found it quite enjoyable!

Det e forskjæll på skit å painnkak
Literally meaning that there's a difference between dirt and pancake, it's a local expression stressing the difference between the rich and the not so well off. "Har du sætt den nye kjerra te han Sigmund? E itj akkurat en ferrari om æ kainn si det rætt ut." "Joda, men det e no forskjæll på skit å painnkak!"

Det går likar no
Local expression indicating that things are getting better, with a slight nuance hinting of having gone through tough times recently. Made famous nationally as a trønder expression through the song with the expression as title by the local superstars DDE.

Workspace awareness
is the up-to-the-moment understanding of another persons interaction with the shared space. Some important elements when talking about workspace awareness: - presence: Who is participating in the activity? - location: Where are they working? - activity level: How active are they in the workspace? - actions: What are they doing? What are their current activities and tasks? - intentions: What will they do next? Where will they be? - changes: What changes are they making, and where? - objects: What objects are they using? - extents: What can they see? How far can they reach? - abilities: What can they do? - sphere of influence: Where can they make changes? - expectations: What do they need to do next? "Many of these elements fall into two rought groups: those that deal with what is happening with another person, and those that deal with where it is happening." ~ Gutwin and Greenberg Workspace awareness may be used for many different ways of collaboration. Here is a list of the most regular ones: - management of the degree to which people are working together. - simplifying the verbal communication and making it more efficient. - coordinate actions in collaborative activity. - make expectations of what is going vo be done by the partners. - assisting others to know he a partner needs help, and how. There are many different tools, and here follows an example of one.

Computer-supported cooperative work

nitpick
fussy. fault-finding

koselig
tba

feedback videoconferencing
this is very good. short and to the point. perhaps you should drop the history part. this is not very relevant.

feedback groupware
the text should be more structured. right now its a wall of text that makes it hard to read. very similar to the wikipedia article. try using your own words. filter out the important things so it can be made more compact.

feedback roomware
the text should be more structured. right now its a wall of text that makes it hard to read. this text is also simply a copy paste from ercim.eu maybe you should explain it in your own words?

feedback interactive whiteboard.
the text should be more structured. right now its a wall of text that makes it hard to read. maybe you should explain more about application areas and less technical details. nice job!

feedback revision control
the text should be more structured. right now its a wall of text that makes it hard to read. you should mention that it can be used fir.other things than just programing. feks: text editing, hardware development and so on.... nice job!

access control
in all collaborative projects using software, there is a need to control who has access to what. one thing can be keeping hackers out, but there may also be projects where there are different access levels. most file systems usually have sophisticated features to handle fine grained read/write access permissions.

social network
a social network is a social structure made up of actors and the relationship between them. the social network is a online platform that makes it possible for actors to keep contact even when there are huge geographical distances. also its a easy way to share information between friends, such as pictures, movies and other personal opinions or links. there have been several attempts to standardise the social network platforms. these have been unsuccessful and one large platform called Facebook has become the norm.

agile development
agile development is describing processes that usually consists of continuous iterations and improvement. this is opposed to traditional methods, such as the waterfall method, were each stage is done and finished, and at last resulting in a finished product. in agile processes, one can say that a small waterfall process is repeated multiple times.

gmail
gmail is the reference e-mail client and service today. there are numerous plugins, including labeling, multiple inboxes (shown in image) and advanced capabilities for filtering and sending mail from aliases. email is generally an asynchronous communication tool. gmail is an invaluable tool for cooperative processes of almost any kind!

blog
blog is an abbreviation of web log. it is used for many purposes, including cooking, fashion, travel and lifestyle. it can also be used as a collabararive tool, tracking progress and communication between team members

SocioTechnical
Feedback from Group 5: - The term is not completely explained; - Maybe some additional explaination can be added; - Add some reference of the scientific literature.

Virtual team
Feedback from Group 5: - Good explanation of the term. - Add some reference of the scientific literature.

Awareness
feedback from group 5: try to add some reference to scientific literature, how CT can provide awareness or coordination and how can be used in a collaborative context. a picture could also be.useful

Augmented Reality
feedback from group 5: try to add some reference to scientific literature, how AR can provide awareness or coordination and how can be used in a collaborative context. a picture could also be.useful

Groupware
Feedback from Group 5: - Backup your item with scientific literature - Add some exampel of groupware.

Web conferencing

Single-display groupware

Information sharing

Real-time groupware

Coordination

Team rooms

Coordination

Messaging

Workflow

Electronic meeting systems

E-work

Collaboration

Formal communication

Informal communication

Tailorability

Shared workspace

Articulation work

Workspace awareness

Awareness

Dugnad
Traditional word for voluntary work. it is a common courtesy for Norwegians to engage in this type of work. some examples of dugnad would be cleaning the neighbourhood, helping at events and fighting zombies.

Olavsfestdagene
St. Olav's Festival From the end of July to the start of August every year, the city celebrates the St. Olav's Festival, Norway's largest church and cultural festival. The biggest festival in Trondheim was 29 July – St. Olav’s Day. The night before 29 July, St. Olav’s vigil, was therefore important.

Ringve Museum
Ringve Museum is Norway's national museum of music and musical instruments. Ringve Museum houses two permanent exhibition

Bunad
Bunad is a common term for traditional norwegian clothing. There are many different ones from different parts of the country.

Hjerte-lunge-redning
CPR - emergency procedure.

Russefeiring
Norwegian celebration of graduating high school. The celebration lasts from 1st of may until 17 of may and is usually combined with a lot of partying and doing crazy challanges.

Immatrikulering
The process of being enrolled. All new students at NTNU go through this ceremony.

Tyholttårnet
A radio tower located in the Tyholt area in Trondheim. It also has a rotating restaurant which gives a complete overview of the city.

süti

INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD
"An interactive whiteboard (IWB), is a large interactive display that connects to a computer and projector. A projector projects the computer's desktop onto the board's surface where users control the computer using a pen, finger, stylus, or other device. The board is typically mounted to a wall or floor stand." - Wikipedia They are used in a variety of settings, including classrooms at all levels of education, in corporate board rooms and work groups, in training rooms for professional sports coaching, in broadcasting studios and others. An interactive whiteboard (IWB) device is connected to a computer via USB or a serial port cable, or else wirelessly via Bluetooth or a 2.4 GHz wireless. A device driver is usually installed on the computer. When you connect your interactive whiteboard to a computer, the computer runs an application, and then sends the image to your projector. Your projector casts the image onto your interactive whiteboard. Your interactive whiteboard acts as your computer’s monitor and its input devices enable you to control any application by touching the interactive surface. It enables you to do everything that you can do at your computer : open and close applications, scroll through files, hold meetings with others, create new documents or edit existing ones, visit websites, play video clips and more—by touching the interactive surface with your finger or the included pen. The user then calibrates the whiteboard image using a pointer as necessary. After this, the pointer or other device may be used to activate programs, buttons and menus from the whiteboard itself, just as one would ordinarily do with a mouse. If text input is required, user can invoke an on-screen keyboard or, if the whiteboard provides for this, utilize handwriting recognition. This makes it unnecessary to go to the computer keyboard to enter text. Thus, an IWB emulates both mouse and keyboard. The user can conduct a presentation or a class almost exclusively from the whiteboard. You can capture and save everyt

fire hose
in case of fire this fire hose can be pulled out of the wall. brannslange is the norwegian word for fire hose.

norwegian birthday crown
this is a norwegian birthday crown. the birthday boy/girl should wear this all day to show other his/her new age.

Tailorability

Brunost
There are several different words for "brunost'. Many Norwegians call it Geitost. In addition, similar goat cheese that fall into the same category is "fløtemysost" and "millomost". They have almost the same packaging and are just other types of brunost than the traditional brunost, or geitost.

AtB
AtB also has a mobile application where you can buy a ticket using your phone, either by charging it to your phone bill or by using your credit card. This makes taking the bus even more flexible, as you don't have to buy your ticket in advance.

Tailorability
add later.

Bed.pres.
The presentations are normally arranged by student organisations. Dinner after presentations are sometimes held on campus, and sometimes at restaurants etc.

lusekofte
The lusekofte can be dated back to 19th century. A lusekofte is formally called a Setesdal sweater.

IKEA

Brunost
The taste is quite sweet and foreigners usually do not appreciate the taste. It is originally from Gudbrandsdalen.

IAESTE
IAESTE (The International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience) is an international organization offering technology students a chance to get technical work experience abroad. The students usually work for a period ranging from 4 to 18 weeks. The NTNU-committee  has 35 active members offering you a wide range of  international work opportunities. You may contact them at trondheim@iaeste.no. 

snø
In norwegian dialects, alternative twists on the word snø are common, such as sne, sny and snog.

17 mai
The date is chosen to be the national day of Norway because norwegian pioneers signed the norwegian constitution on 17th of may 1814.

Brunost
Students and pupils also put browncheese on an open face sandwich, and bring it to school or uni for lunch.

kaffe
Students at NTNU can get some fresh brewed coffee at Café SITO at Stripa

kaffe
The kiosks on campus even have their own coffee deals.

UKA
UKA is Norway's biggest festival, and it is arranged by students every second fall. UKA consists of concerts, theater, courses and more. Some artists that has visited UKA is Jay-Z, David Guetta and Muse. UKA will be arranged in October 2013.

Groupware
Groupware (also referred to as collaborative software) is a common designation for computer software tools designed to help a team achieve their goals. Common functionality includes smart ways of sharing documents and rich media, as well as project management functionality. Groupware is characterized by its socio-technical dimension.  

KarriereDagen
KarriereDagen is a yearly event where students have the oppurtunity to meet norwegian companies. It is hosted in a large tent outside the main building at NTNU every september, and in 2012 as much as 88 companies were represented. A summer internship-presentation is given, where the companies have 3 minutes each to present their job offerings for the following summer.

Gløs
Gløs is short for NTNU Gløshaugen which is one of NTNU's campusses. Gløs is locatet not to far from the city. This campus is where most students that study science and engineering go.

Augmented Reality
Abbreviated as AR, Augmented Reality is a type of virtual reality that aims to duplicate the world's environment in a computer. An augmented reality system generates a composite view for the user that is the combination of the real scene viewed by the user and a virtual scene generated by the computer that augments the scene with additional information. It is a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than augmented) by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality. By contrast, virtual reality replaces the real world with a simulated one.

Awareness
Communication threading, or conversation threading is a feature used by many email clients, internet forums, debate areas in online newspapers where the technology helps the user make sense of the post by visually grouping related messages. The posts are sorted so that the reply-posts are placed close to the original post. One of the advantages of threaded discussions is that they easily show the structure of the discussion, mainly who is replying to what. A disadvantage is that  threaded discussions tend to become more confrontational, since one replies more directly to another person instead of to a topic as a whole.

Virtual team
A virtual team is a group of individual people that works together across time, space and organizational boundaries. The group is tied together and can collaborate through information and telecommunication technologies. Example of tools are vAcademia and SecondLife. There are three main aspects of virtual teams, purpose, people and link. Purpose is the most important aspect since it is what hold the team together. 

Revision control systems
Revision control systems (AKA version control systems) are tools for the management of changes to documents, computer programs, web sites, and other collections of digital informations. This tools allows groups of people work together on the same documents because they keep track of the changings creating different versions, managing conflicts and helping workers in other advanced ways. Two famous VCS are Git and Subversion[1]. They both help software developers to maintain the progression of the coding, easily divide the work among people and working from different locations. Those tools provides also a secure backup as the data are usually stored in a central server accessed by multiple clients. Thus, the developers can focus on the coding without worry about data loss or corruption. Those systems could work in different ways. Basically, the files are stored in a shared repository. The simplest method of preventing concurrent access problems involves locking files so that only one developer at a time has write access to the central repository copies of those files. Another option could be the version merging. Most version control systems allow multiple developers to edit the same file at the same time. Merging two files can be a very delicate operation, and usually possible only if the data structure is simple, as in text files. The emerging trend of these years about VCS, concerns the Distributed VCS as for example Git. Those tools takes a peer-to-peer approach to version control, as opposed to the client-server approach of centralized systems and they allows faster operations. [1] Nayan B. Ruparelia. 2010. The history of version control. SIGSOFT Softw. Eng. Notes 35, 1 (January 2010), 5-9. DOI=10.1145/1668862.1668876 http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1668862.1668876

SocioTechnical
Sociotechnical is the interrelated social and technical acpects of an organization or society as a whole. Hence, the theory behind it is about joint optimization, having a shared focus on achievement of both excellence in technical performance and quality of work life. This can be acheived through a number of different ways. Usually, it is by designing types of organizations that emphasis on the relationship between social and technical elements which makes it easier to be productive and joyful.

Stripa
This is the central building on campus, and it is named after a "landing strip" and ends up in the "hangar".

Bed.pres.
This is an event where a company comes to campus to have a presentation about their business to recruit students. The presentation is followed by a dinner sponsored by the company.

Under Dusken
Under Dusken is a magazine created by and for the students in Trondheim. In the magazine you can read stories about what is going on in the city, especially things concerning students and things they are interested in.

lusekofte
A traditional norwegian jumper that has recently come back into fashion. nice and warm. made of wool.

17 mai
The norwegian independance day. we are all happy, and carry flags. lots of people walking in parade.

snø
snø is the norwegian word for snow. it contains the special scandinavian letter ø! it is pronounced like the u in the english word hut.

kaffe
kaffe is the norwegian word for coffee. NTNU students drink a lot of coffee!

Rosenborg BK
The home ground of the Tippeligaen side Rosenborg BK is Lerkendal Stadion. It has a capacity for 21.116 spectators, making it the second-largest football stadium in the country.

Lerkendal
The record attendance of Lerkendal is 28569, dating from the decisive league match between Rosenborg and Lillestrøm in 1985. However this was before the stadium became an all-seater in 2001.

AtB

Groupware
Groupware goes hand in hand with CSCW. The term refers to software that is designed to support activities of a group or organization over a network and includes email, conferencing tools, group calendars, workflow management tools, etc.[1] While groupware enables geographically dispersed teams to achieve organizational goals and engage in cooperative work, there are also many challenges that accompany use of such systems. For instance, groupware often requires users to learn a new system, which users may perceive as creating more work for them without much benefit. If team members are not willing to learn and adopt groupware, it is difficult (if not impossible) for the organization to develop the requisite critical mass for the groupware to be useful. Further, research has found that groupware requires careful implementation into a group setting, and product developers have not as yet been able to find the most optimal way to do introduce such systems into organizational environments.[1] On the technical side, networking issues with groupware often create challenges in using groupware for CSCW. While access to the Internet is becoming increasingly ubiquitous, geographically dispersed users still face challenges of differing network conditions. For instance, web conferencing can be quite challenging if some members have a very slow connection and others are able to utilize high speed connections.[1] [1] Olson, J.M.; Olson, J.S. (2008). "The human computer interaction handbook: Fundamentals, evolving technologies, and emerging applications". Group Cooperative Work (New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates)

Moholt studentby
Moholt studentby is located on two streets: Moholt Alle and Herman Krags veg. In both streets there is laundary.Moholt Alle has a small gim.

Nidaros Cathedral
Nidaros Cathedral (Norwegian: Nidarosdomen / Nidaros Domkirke) is a Church of Norway cathedral located in the city of Trondheim in Sor-Trondelag county, Norway. It is the traditional location for the consecration of the King of Norway. King Harald was consecrated at Nidaros Cathedral on June 23, 1991. It was the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Nidaros from its establishment in 1152 until its abolition in 1537. Since the Reformation, it has been the cathedral of the Lutheran bishops of Trondheim (or Nidaros) in the Diocese of Nidaros. The architectural style of the cathedral is Romanesque and Gothic. Historically it was an important destination for pilgrims coming from all of Northern Europe. It is the northernmost medieval cathedral in the world.

Munkholmen
In the Trondheimsfjord, just a little over a kilometer off the shore of the center of Trondheim, lies the small island of Munkholmen. In ancient times, early residers of the area used the island as an execution site. Around the beginning of the 12th century a monastery was erected, becoming the home of Benedictine monks. In the 17th century it was transformed into a fort, which also served as a prison. The Germans fitted an anti-aircraft gun on the island during the second world war. Today Munkholmen is a popular summertime tourist attraction and recreational area, and a ferry takes passengers there from Ravnkloa.

Avatar
Due to recent technology advancements, collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) where users can interact and collaborate via avatars in 3D worlds have become more and more common in home and professional usage. Character digital representations of the users are normally called avatars. In most cases, these avatars are a human like figure. Customizable human avatars are available in almost all CVEs. Research indicates that users who customize their avatar build a stronger relationship with it, which then results in an increased private self-awareness [Vasalou et al., 2007] Avatars do not present the same amount of awareness clues than a real person, but they do often offer some common human gestures.

Moholt studentby
Moholt is the largest of the student villages in Trondheim. There are several different housing units here, so you should be able to find something that suits you. We have single rooms, apartments for couples without children and apartments for families with children. The student village is known for its thriving, international community. Here students from all over the world have access to 19 student basements, frequently used for social happenings.

t:kort
You can buy t:kort at AtB offices. They are located at Kongens gate 34 and at Trondheim sentralstasjon (train station).

Chess
Chess Communication is a Norwegian mobile network operator owned by TeliaSonera and service of its sister company NetCom GSM networks.Chess has about 500,000 customers. 11. November 2011. This is operator that has cheapest services in norway. Every student has chess card in trondheim so its is best way to communicate with others for low costs. Every year student organizations sell chess cards with 50% discounts. Chess also has promotions that allows students to send free sms to their home country. For this reasons chess is most popular provider along students in norway.

ÆØÅ
Å is the last letter of the Norwegian alphabet. There is a place named Å in Lofoten. It is named Å because it's located on the last island and there is a legend which says it's the end of the world. So that means that Å is the end of the alphabet and the end of the world.

CandyKing
Candyking offers only the best sweet treats. The basic idea is for the consumer to put together their own candy bag or cup according to need, taste and occasion. The assortment is of the highest quality and contains specially selected favourites from the best suppliers. Candyking is a strong brand with an attractive assortment and a great range of packages, so we can offer grocery retailers, cinemas, high street stores, amusement parks and service stations a package solution with marketing activities, displays, service and sales support.

Sykkel oblat
"Sykkel oblat" means bike sticker. It is a small sticker that is used to label your bike. If you live in Moholt, or any other student village, and you cherish your bike, you will need this sticker. Every semester there is a bike removal action, executed by Sit bolig. That means that all the bikes that are not labeled with "sykkel oblat" will be removed. Bikes that are in bad condition will be disposed, and all tje bikes that are usable will be sold on auction. You can obtain bike sticker in Sit bolig's buildings.

CampusGuiden
This application is available for iPhone and Android users. There is also a web application which can be accessed from any browser.

Teknologibiblioteket
This is Technology library situated in Main Administration Building. There you can find the largest collection of technical literature in Norway, as well as comprehensive collections within other subject areas. In addition to traditional academic library services, the library also offers working areas and facilities for web-searching, group rooms, reading rooms and skilled and friendly staff. If the book you want is already loaned, the library staff will help you find the book in some other library and order it for you.

Brunost
This is a Norwegian cheese with characteristic brown colour and taste. It is made from a mixture of cow and goat's milk, cream and whey. Usually, it is served with bread for breakfast.

Pose
"Pose" means bag. Every time you go to the market you will hear that word. When you get to the cash register, after the cashier has checked in all your items, he or she will ask you "Pose?". You don't have to ask for translation, cashier is just wondering whether you want a plastic bag to put your stuff in. Bags usually cost about 2 kroner.

Rosenborg BK
Rosenborg BK (RBK) is Trondheim's soccer team in the Norwegian division system. They have won the league 22 times, a Norwegian record by far. They have also participated in Champions League a number of times, beating teams like AC Milan and Real Madrid. RBK play their games at Lerkendal

Lerkendal
This is the Home stadium of Trondheim's largest soccer team, Rosenborg BK. it can hold over 21.000 people during a game